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Personal Sound Amplifiers (PSA)

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  • Personal Sound Amplifiers (PSA)

    Personal Sound Amplifiers (PSA)
    Hearing aids are very expensive, typically from $3000 to $6000 a pair.
    But some people might postpone wearing them, for many year.
    I describe this alternative at my university website:
    Feel free to share this short essay with others.
    Comments will be appreciated.
    Ludwik Kowalski (see Wikipedia)
    Ludwik Kowalski, a retired nuclear physicist (see Wikipedia), the author of “Diary of a Former Communist,” at:

    It is a testimony based on a diary kept between 1946 and 2004 (in the USSR, Poland, France and the USA). Why is this ON-LINE book free? Because writing it was a moral obligation to my parents, and to other victims of Stalinism.